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Low Carbon Pulse Edition 40

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    Click here to the Long Form Version of Edition 40, covering each news item in this Short Form Version in more detail, and other news items.

    Click here for the First Compendium of Low Carbon Pulse (containing Editions 1 to 28, covering October 6, 2020 to October 5, 2021), here for the Second Compendium of Low Carbon Pulse (containing Editions 29 to 38, covering October 7, 2021 to March 31, 2022), and click here for the Third Compendium of Low Carbon Pulse.


    Burning Platform:

    The month of May has been a month of mixed news:

    • On May 5, 2022, it was reported widely that in April 2022, the US National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) observatory at Mauna Loa, Hawaii recorded the highest level of CO2 in the atmosphere – 420 ppm. (For more on this news item see CO2 at highest levels under Climate Change Reported and Explained.)
    • On May 9, 2022, the World Metrological Organisation (WMO) released a press-release reporting on the Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update / State of the Global Climate 2021.

      The headline from the press-release is as follows:

      "There is a 50:50 [actually expressed as: "about as likely as not (48%)"] chance of the annual average global temperature temporarily reaching 1.5OC above the pre-industrial level for at least one of the next five years – and the likelihood is increasing with time".

    The source of the headline is the Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update, produced by the Met Office in the UK (the Met Office being the WMO's lead advisory organisation for predictions of this kind). 

    As reported in previous editions of Low Carbon Pulse (and sibling publications), in 2021 the global average temperature was 1.1OC above the pre-industrial level. (For other key findings, see Key Findings from Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update / State of the Global Climate 2021 below under Climate Change Reported and Explained.) 

    Vale those lost:

    Our continued condolences for those lost in the conflict in Ukraine, and safe-haven to those displaced.

    Ministers meet:

    On May 12, and 13, 2022, a meeting of Ministers from more than 40 countries (convened by the Presidencies of COP-26 and COP-27) took place in Copenhagen, Denmark (May Ministerial). 

    The May Ministerial marked six months since COP-26 and six months until COP-27, and was co-chaired by the President of COP-26 Mr Alok Sharma, and the incoming President of COP-27, Mr Sameh Shoukry. The communique from the May Ministerial is worth a read.

    Biodiversity Day 2022:

    Sunday May 22, 2022, was Biodiversity Day 2022. There were was considerable coverage before, on and after Biodiversity Day 2022 about all aspects of the environment, including the need to cease activities giving rise to degradation, and to undertake activities that will remedy degradation that has occurred. The Blue and Green Carbon and Biodiversity section of this Edition 40 of Low Carbon Pulse provides some background.

    The Month in the rear view mirror:

    • May 2 to 6, 2022: The XV World Forestry Congress (Congress) was held in Seoul, Republic of Korea (ROK) under the theme of Building a Green Healthy and Resilient Future with Forests.

      For the author of Low Carbon Pulse, the progress made at the Congress is key, both for forestry and land use. During the first four months of 2022, there has been a clear uptick in interest in the role that land-management and optimal land-use can have on increased absorption of CO2, i.e., its negative GHG emission impact. 

      Outcomes from the Congress:
      • Participants at the Congress endorsed the Seoul Forest Declaration, identifying areas for action as a priority;
      • Ministerial Call on Sustainable Wood; and
      • Youth Call for Action.
    • May 9 to 20, 2022: The 15th United Nations Conference to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) was held in Abidjanm, Côte d'Ivoire. COP-15 of UNCCD was accompanied by the second edition of the Global Land OutlookLand Restoration for Recovery and Resilience published by the UNCCD.

      Outcomes from COP-15 UNCCD:
      • Concluded with a global pledge to boost drought resilience and to invest in land restoration for future prosperity, with agreement to establish an Intergovernmental Working Group for 2022-2024 to consider solutions; and
      • Included the adoption of 38 decisions including on migration and tenure, highlighting the role of land in addressing the degradation that has occurred (with up to 40% of land mass degraded), including as a result of climate change. 

    The theme that emerged from XV World Forestry Congress and COP-15 of UNCCD was how to address deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, and land restoration, and land-management and land-use generally.

    30th anniversary of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change:

    May 9, 2022 was the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Considerable progress has been achieved since May 9, 1992, critically the Paris Agreement and the Paris Rule Book that underpins the Paris Agreement

    To mark the 30th anniversary, UN Climate Change Executive Secretary, Ms Patricia Espinosa made a statement, and the following three pages convey, in short form, the essence of that statement.

    The Month Ahead:

    • On June 2 and 3, 2022, the Stockholm+50 conference will be held in Stockholm, Sweden. The Stockholm+50 conference marks the 50th anniversary of the world's first conference on the environment – United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, Sweden, June 5 and 6, 1972, which gave rise to the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

      The agenda for the Stockholm+50 conference is Immediate action for people, planet and prosperity will create a better future for all. Edition 41 of Low Carbon Pulse will report on Stockholm+50; and 
    • Also in June:
      • On June 26 to 28, the G7 Summit will be held at Schloss Elmau, Bavaria, Germany;
      • On June 26 to 30, the World Urban Forum will be held in Katowice, Poland; and
      • On June 27 to July 1, the UN Ocean Conference will be held in Lisbon, Portugal.

      Edition 41 of Low Carbon Pulse will report on the Summit, Forum and Conference.

    Balance of the content of this Edition 40:

    Clicking on the contents list will take the reader to the section clicked:

    Page 3 to 7
    Legal, Policy Setting and Regulatory highlights
    Page 28 to 29
    Carbon Credits, Hydrogen Markets and Trading
    Pages 7 to 9
    Climate change reported and explained
    Pages 29 to 31
    E-fuels / Future Fuels / Now Fuels
    Pages 9 to 10
    Middle East including GCC Countries
    Page 32 to 33
    Cities, Clusters, and Hubs and Corridors and Valleys, and Giga-Factories
    Pages 11 to 13
    Africa, India and Indonesia; Japan & ROK
    Page 33Green Metals / Minerals, Mining and Difficult to Decarbonise Industries
    Pages 14 to 15
    PRC and Russia
    Page 33 to 36
    Wind round-up, on-shore and off-shore
    Pages 15 to 19
    Europe and UK; and Americas
    Page 36 to 42
    Solar, Sustainability and NZE Waste
    Pages 20 to 23
    France and Germany; and Australia
    Pages 42 to 43
    Land Mobility / Transport
    Page 23 to 24
    Blue Green Carbon Initiatives & Biodiversity
    Page 43 to 45 Ports Progress and Shipping Forecast; Airports and Aviation
    Page 24 to 25
    Bioenergy and heat-recovery
    Pages 45 to 46
    Quote of the Month; Reference Materials
    Page 25 to Page 26
    BESS and HESS (and other energy storage)Page 45 to 46NZE Publications
     Page 26 to Page 28Carbon Accounting, Carbon Capture, Carbon Capture and Use and CDR  

    Legal, Policy Setting and Regulatory highlights, and Helpful Publications:

    REPowerEU detailed plans released:

    As reported in Edition 37 of Low Carbon Pulse, on March 8, 2022, the European Commission (EC) outlined its REPowerEU plan.

    On May 18, 2022, the EC presented its detailed REPowerEU Plan. The key points REPowerEU Plan are as follows: 

    • First, the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) will continue as the core of the REPowerEU Plan, with the RRF Regulation to be amended to reflect the REPowerEU Plan;
    • Secondly, Energy savings (improved energy efficiency) offers the cheapest and quickest means of mitigating the impacts on the energy market in the EU, and to reflect this the EC will increase the Energy Efficiency Target under Fit-for-55 package from 9% to 11%. To accompany the REPowerEU Plan, on May 18, 2022, the EC published EU Save Energy Communication;

      By way of reminder: The Fit-for-55 package was presented in mid-July 2021 (see Edition 32 of Low Carbon Pulse) to reduced GHG emissions by at least 55% by 2030, compared to 1990 GHG emission levels; 
    • Thirdly, Diversifying energy imports (diversified supply) is a key element to the policy settings in the EU, with natural gas and LNG in the near to medium term (as a transition energy source) and hydrogen as the medium to long-term solution, as reflected in the EU Energy Platform. In line with editorial comment provided by Low Carbon Pulse (and sibling publications), the EC is contemplating that Member States of the EU may purchase natural gas and LNG and hydrogen jointly. In the context of the deployment of hydrogen, arrangements of this kind will accelerate the development and deployment of hydrogen capacity.
    • Fourthly, Substituting fossil fuels and accelerating clean energy transition (acceleration of renewable energy deployment) is the core of progress towards NZE globally, and the EC policy settings, including the following:
      • to increase the deployment of renewable renewable from 40% to 45% by 2030;

      • the EU Solar Strategy is to provide a pathway to doubling photovoltaic capacity by 2025, and to deploy 600 GW of photovoltaic capacity by 2030, with an obligation to install photovoltaic panels on new commercial, public and residential buildings under the Solar Rooftop initiative;

      • Heat pump deployment is to double, with policy settings to integrate geothermal and solar thermal energy across communal / district heating systems;

      • the Renewable Energy Directive is to be amended to allow the development and deployment of renewable projects at a quicker rate, and on a simplified basis;

      • targeting the production of 10 million metric tonnes of Renewable Hydrogen within the EU and the import of 10 million metric tonnes of Renewable Hydrogen into the EU by 2030.

      • the Biomethane Action Plan targeting the production of 35 billion cubic metres of biomethane by 2035. The Biomethane Action Plan is covered in more detail below, under Bioenergy and Heat Recovery.

    EC publishes technical regulations:

    Edition 39 of Low Carbon Pulse reported that on May 18, 2022, the EC intends to publish technical regulations that will provide the parameters by which hydrogen will be classified as renewable under the EU RED II.

    On May 18, 2022, among other things, the EC published two draft Delegated Acts to clarify EU rules applicable to renewable hydrogen under the 2018 Renewable Energy Directive. The two Delegated Acts are: the Delegated Act on the production of renewable transport fuels – share of renewable electricity (requirements) and the Delegated Act on renewable energy – method for assessing GHG emission savings from certain fuels. The Delegated Acts work together:

    A number of participants in the hydrogen industry (and the broader energy industry) have noted that the requirements for additionality and coupling may have unintended consequence of slowing the pace of development of Green Hydrogen production capacity. The form of the two delegated acts are open for consultation until June 17, 2022, having commenced on May 20, 2022. Edition 41 of Low Carbon Pulse will consider each Delegated Act.

    Green Hydrogen Organisation defines Green Hydrogen:

    On May 17, 2022, the Green Hydrogen Organisation or GHO published The Green Hydrogen Standard: the GHO has defined Green Hydrogen as:

    "hydrogen produced through the electrolysis of water with 100% or near 100% renewable energy with close to zero greenhouse gas emissions (less than or equal to 1kg of CO2-e per kg of H2 taken as an average over a 12 month period".

    The Green Hydrogen Standard imposes environmental, social and governance obligations on producers of Green Hydrogen, and Green Hydrogen produced must be assessed by Independent Assurance Providers to verify compliance. Each assessment and compliance report of Independent Assurance Provider will be submitted to the Accreditation Body of the GHO which will make the final determination as to compliance, and, if compliant, accredit as Green Hydrogen.

    Clean Air Task Force framework for CCS in Europe:

    On May 10, 2022, the Clean Air Task Force or CATF (an environmental organization) published A European Strategy for Carbon Capture and Storage, effectively providing a policy setting framework for carbon capture and storage across Europe. 

    Unlocking the hydrogen economy:

    During May the European Commission (EC) and the European Investment Bank (EIB) published Unloading the hydrogen economy - stimulating investment across the hydrogen value chain. The publication highlights the key takeaways from an investor consultation with 46 market participants conducted by the EIB Advisory Services Group at the request of the EC

    McKinsey & Co:

    On May 16, 2022, McKinsey Sustainability published a collection of analyses – Decarbonizing the world's industries: A net-zero guide for nine key sectors (Power, Oil and Gas, Automotive, Aviation and shipping, Steel, Cement, Mining, Agriculture and food and Forestry and land use). 

    As is always the case with McKinsey publications, each analysis provides rich reading: each analysis provides a pithy piece on momentum and acceleration, underpinned by rich factual and statistical information. 

    Global CCS Institute publishes inaugural report:

    On May 17, 2022, the Global CCS Institute (a CCS "think-tank") published State of the Art: CCS Technologies 2022. The publication is welcome, and very helpful.

    Council of European Union (CEU) revises Trans-European Networks for Energy (TEN-E) Regulation:

    On May 16, 2022, the CEU adopted the revised TEN-E Regulation. The press release (from provides background and details on the next steps. 

    The headline from the revised TEN-E Regulation is the introduction of mandatory sustainability criteria for all projects across the EU, and the end to support for natural gas and oil projects.

    The revise TEN-E Regulation prioritises 11 corridors for the Trans-European Network, and three thematic areas for development and interconnection.

    Climate change reported and explained:

    CO2 at highest levels: 

    • On May 5, 2022, it was reported widely that in April 2022, the US National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) observatory at Mauna Loa, Hawaii recorded the highest level of CO2 in the atmosphere – 420 ppm.
    • On May 14, 2022 it was reported widely that a new daily record of 421.37 ppm had been recorded by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, with similar record levels confirmed by the NOAA

    Middle East including GCC Countries:

    EWEC procuring 1.5 GW of photovoltaic solar:

    On May 11, 2022, it was reported widely that Emirates Water and Electricity Co. (EWEC) was accepting expressions of interest to develop a 1.5 GW photovoltaic solar project in Abu Dhabi (the AL Ajban PV project). 

    ADNOC and BP continue cooperation:

    On May 24, 2022, it was reported widely that ADNOC (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company) and Masdar (Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company) had agreed to invest in bp's Blue Hydrogen and Green Hydrogen projects, H2Teesside. ADNOC will work with bp on the Blue Hydrogen project, and Masdar will work with bp on the Green Hydrogen project (HyGreen Teesside).

    JDA for World Scale Future Fuels project:

    Previous editions of Low Carbon Pulse reported that in late 2021, ACWA Power, Air Products and OQ had signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) in respect of an integrated photovoltaic solar, wind, and BESS, Green Hydrogen production facility, and nitrogen separation facility, and a Green Hydrogen and nitrogen synthesis plant (to be located in the Salalah Free Zone, Oman) to produce Green Ammonia. 

    On May 26, 2022, it was reported widely that the parties to the MOU had progressed to the execution of a joint development agreement (JDA).


    Continued flow of Suez projects:

    On May 11, 2022, reported that Egyptian Prime Minister, Mr Mostafa Madbouly attended a signing ceremony for a memorandum of understanding (MOU) among the General Authority for Suez Canal Economic Zone, The Sovereign Fund of Egypt, the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company, and the New and Renewable Energy Authority, and a consortium comprising Total Eren and Enara Capital. Under the MOU, facilities are to be developed to produce Green Hydrogen and Green Ammonia to produce up to 300,000 metric tonnes of Green Ammonia a year initially, but with the expectation of expansion of up to 1.5 million metric tonnes a year. 

    And another one!:

    On June 1, 2022, it was reported widely that the General Authority for Suez Canal Economic Zone (SCZONE) and H-2 Industries plan to develop a USD 4 billion waste-to-hydrogen facility at Port Said. As reported, the waste-to-hydrogen facility will process 4 million metric tonnes of municipal solid waste as feedstock, and produce 300,000 metric tonnes of hydrogen annually.

    African Green Hydrogen Alliance launched:

    On May 20, 2022, it was reported widely that Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, Mauritania, and South Africa had established the African Green Hydrogen Alliance (AGHA). The AGHA is supported by the African Development Bank, the Green Hydrogen Organisation, and the UN Climate Change High-Level Champions, and the UN Economic Commission for Africa.

    Africa Day:

    May 25, 2022, marked Africa Day 2022. Africa Day 2022 marks the 20th anniversary of the establishment of the African Union. The theme for Africa Day 2022 was nutrition.

    First of its kind BESS:

    On May 31, 2022, energy-storage reported that JCM Power and InfraCo Africa had announced that the 20 MW Golomoti Photovoltaic Solar and BESS project in the Dedza district of Malawi was operational– said to be the first grid-connected utility scale co-located project in sub-Saharan Africa.

    India and Indonesia:

    Hindustan Salts seeks bids for 1 GW of solar:

    On May 5, 2022, reported that Hindustan Salts Ltd (a Government of India state-owned corporation) had invited bids to develop 1 GW of photovoltaic solar capacity located on 5,000 acres of disused land in the Indian State of Gujarat.

    1 GW Photovoltaic solar farm at Hengjaya Mine and Industrial Park:

    Ib vogt (a solar energy engineering company and developer) and Quantum Power Asia announced the development of a 1 GW photovoltaic solar farm to provide renewable electrical energy at the Hengjaya Mine (nickel and cobalt), contracting with Nickel Mines Limited for this purpose, and to provide renewable electrical energy to Morowali Industrial Park.

    587 GW of renewable energy by 2060:

    On May 23, 2022, reported that Indonesia plans to develop clean energy power plants with capacity of 587 GW by 2060, including 361 GW of photovoltaic solar capacity, 83 GW of hydroelectric power, and 39 GW of wind capacity. In addition, the plans include the development of 37 GW of biomass capacity, 35 GW of nuclear capacity, 18 GW of geothermal capacity, and 13.4 GW of ocean current and wave capacity. To complete the clean energy mix, there will be energy storage capacity of 140 GW of BESS, 52 GW of HESS and 4.2 GW of pumped storage. As reported in previous editions, the decarbonisation of the electrical energy sector will cost an estimated USD 1,177 billion (or USD 1.177 trillion).

    Giga-factory planned by Exide Industries:

    On May 27, 2022 Benchmark Mineral Intelligence reported that Exide Industries is in "advanced stages" of securing land for its first lithium-ion giga-factory. As reported, the giga-factory is to be located in the state of Karnataka, with initial production capacity of six GWh a year, increasing to 12 GWh by 2030. It is understood that the giga-factory will be co-developed with SVOLT.

    Hybrid photovoltaic solar and wind operational:

    On May 28, 2022, Adani Green announced at that it had commissioned the 390 MW hybrid plant in the state of Rajasthan. As reported, this is the first hybrid renewable energy project in India. The Solar Energy Corporation of India or SOCI (a state-owned corporation) is to off-take the renewable energy from the project with a tariff of R2.69 per KWh.

    Large scale solar park opens in India:

    On May 30, 2022, Statkraft announced that its Nellai photovoltaic solar farm had commenced operation. The Nellai photovoltaic solar farm is located in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu has world class solar resources, with an average of 300 days of sunshine a year. 

    Japan and Republic of Korea (ROK):

    Air Liquide and Lotte Chemical aligned strategically:

    On May 2, 2022, Air Liquide (one of the Big Three Industrial Gas Giants), announced that it had entered into a strategic joint venture with Lotte Chemical under which Air Liquide (as a 40% participant) and Lotte Chemical (as a 60% participant) are to co-invest through joint venture in new generation, large-scale, hydrogen refuelling stations in the industrial basins of Daesan and Ulsan

    Japan's plans to issue USD 157 billion of green transition bonds:

    On May 19, 2022, reuters reported that Japanese Prime Minister, Mr Fumio Kishida had outlined plans to issue an estimated ¥ 20 trillion (USD 157 billion) of green transition bonds to assist Japan in financing the investment required to achieve carbon neutrality. 

    Japan and US align further at QUAD:

    On May 23, 2022, the White House released a Fact Sheet: US – Japan Climate Partnership. The Fact Sheet outlines the increasing granularity in alignment between the Japan and the US. 

    SolarEdge opens:

    On May 25, 2022, energy-storage reported that SolarEdge has opened its 2 GW battery cell giga-factory (Sella 2). Sella 2 has been developed by SolarEdge, working with Kokam, and is located in Eumseong Innovation City, Chungcheongbuk-do Province, ROK

    PRC and Russia:

    Enhancing ETS for PRC:

    On May 25, 2022, the IEA and Tsinghua University held an expert discussion in respect of how an enhanced emissions trading system in the PRC could assist in providing momentum in progress towards the achievement of NZE.

    On May 25, 2022, the IEA published Enhancing China's ETS for Carbon Neutrality: Focus on the Power Sector. The publication analyses five policy setting scenarios for the electricity sector for 2020 to 2035, consistent with China's 14 Five-Year Plan (2021-2025), and the Long Range-Range Objectives through the Year 2035. 

    PRC NEA predicts 108 GW of new photovoltaic manufacturing capacity in 2022:

    On May 31, 2022, pv-magazine reported that the National Energy Administration of the PRC expects 108 GW new photovoltaic manufacturing capacity during 2022. 

    Europe and UK:

    North Sea Countries 65 by 2030 and 150 by 2050:

    On May 18, 2022, at the North Sea Summit, Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands, consolidated their collective thinking around the development of off-shore wind field capacity development and Green Hydrogen production, with thinking around use of the North Sea as the Green Power Plant of Europe – the thinking includes the development of 65 GW of OWF capacity by 2030 and 150 GW of OWF capacity by 2050

    For these purposes, each of the countries signed the Esbjerg Declaration (formally, The Declaration of Energy Ministers on The North Sea as a Green Power Plant for Europe). 

    Belgium: 8 GW by 2040
    Denmark: 35 GW by 2050
    Germany: 70 by 2050
    The Netherlands: 21 GW by 2030 

    Alliance Investment Management and CIP to assess feasibility of energy island: 

    On May 19, 2022, it was reported widely that Allianz Investment Management and Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners or CIP had agreed to conduct a feasibility study to determine how to build an energy island in the German sector of the North Sea.

    On May 20, 2022, reported that CIP intended to develop BrintØ Island (or Hydrogen Island) in the Danish sector of the North Sea, in the area of Dogger Bank, located on an extensive sandbank. As reported BrintØ Island, would locate Green Hydrogen production facilities, powered by renewable electrical energy from up to 10 GW of OWF capacity, with production capacity of up to 1 million metric tonnes of Green Hydrogen a year. 


    Load matched by 100% renewable electrical energy:

    On May 2, 2022, it was reported widely that between 2.45 pm and 3 pm on April 30, 2022, the electrical energy load of the US State of California was matched by the dispatch of electrical energy sourced from renewable electrical energy sources. This was a first for California: load was 18 GW and renewables electrical energy was 18.6 GW

    Battery funding:

    On May 2, 2022, the US Department of Energy (DOE) announced USD 3.1 billion of funding support under the Battery Materials Processing and Battery Manufacturing initiative and USD 60 million of funding support under Battery Manufacturing and Electric Drive Vehicle Battery Recycling and Second Life Applications initiative. 

    These initiatives are provided for under the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIAJA) also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL). In addition to funding for these initiatives, the BIL provides for funding support of USD 7.5 billion for electrical vehicles charging infrastructure, USD 5.5 billion for electric buses, and USD 5 billion for clean and electric school buses. The BIL funding support is intended to accelerate the development of the supply chain for electrical vehicles in the US.

    As noted in previous editions of Low Carbon Pulse, there is USD 8 billion to provide support for at least four hydrogen hubs that are able to demonstrate that their development and deployment will contribute to production of clean hydrogen and to multiple uses of that clean hydrogen.

    CCS funding:

    On May 5, 2022, the US DOE announced more than USD 2.3 billion of funding support for three initiatives to support the abatement, reduction and storage of CO2 emissions. 

    First, USD 2.25 billion (under the BIL) to accelerate carbon storage projects – BIL: Storage Validation and Testing (Section 40305): Carbon Storage Assurance Facility Enterprise (CarboSAFE) Initiative: Phases II,II.5 and IV;

    Secondly, USD 45 million to increase the number of CO2 storage sites – CarbonSAFE: Phase II  -Storage Complex Feasibility; and 

    Thirdly, USD 46 million to develop technology to remove, capture, convert and store CO2 – Carbon Management.

    France and Germany:

    A progress check on FSRUs:

    Editions 37 and 39 (Long Forms) of Low Carbon Pulse reported on the procurement of floating storage regasification units (FSRUs) across Europe so as to address energy security concerns by allowing the import of liquified natural gas (LNG). As at the end of May 2022, the situation is as follows:

    Germany chartering four FSRUs:

    On May 5, 2022, German Federal Government Economic Minister, Mr Robert Habeck announced that the German Federal Government had committed to charter four FSRUs, a commitment of €2.04 billion (USD 3 billion) to allow the import of sufficient LNG to provide 20% of the demand for natural gas in Germany;

    Gasunie chartering FSRUs:

    On May 10, 2022, it was reported widely that Gasunie had agreed to charter an FSRU from New Fortress Energy to allow the import of LNG at the EEM Energy Import Terminal

    Gasrid chartering FSRU:

    On May 20, 2022, reported that Gasgrid Finland Oy had entered into a 10 year charterparty with Excelerate Energy to allow the import of LNG for regasification to provide natural gas to the Baltic Sea Region, including Finland and Estonia. In addition, Estonia plans to develop an on-shore LNG receiving and re-gasification terminal at Paldiski; and

    Lithuania Klaipeda FSRU:

    Latvenergo has indicated that hopes to import LNG through the Klaipeda FSRU. In addition, Latvia has indicated an intention to develop an on-shore LNG receiving and re-gasification terminal at the Port of Skulte.

    LNG demand curve above supply curve:

    On May 9, 2022, the excellent folk at Rystad Energy published an excellent article - A perfect and unavoidable storm: LNG supply crisis to make landfall in winter 2022. The title of the article says it all, but the article is well-worth a read. 

    France and Ireland committed to HVDC:

    On May 23, 2022, the reported that approval had been given for the development of the Celtic Interconnector allowing for the exchange of electricity between France and the Republic of Ireland using a €1 billion 575 km subsea-cable, from the coast of Brittany to the coast of Cork


    Three consortiums short-listed on Central-West Orana:

    On May 4, 2022, the State Government of NSW announced the short-listed tenderers to develop the Central-West Orana REZ

    As announced, the short-listed consortiums are:

    1. ACE Energy, comprising Acciona, Cobra and Endeavour Energy;
    2. Network REZolution, comprising APA Group, CPB Contractors, Pacific Partnerships, and UGL; and
    3. NewGen Networks, comprising Elecnor, Essential Energy, Plenary Group, and Secure Energy. 

    As stated by the State Government of NSW, the next step in the process will involve Energy Corporation of NSW inviting the short-listed consortiums to respond to a request for proposal, with contract award during 2023.

    Australia and Germany likely to accelerate hydrogen chain development:

    On May 27, 2022, Reuters (under Germany looks to speed up green hydrogen development in Australia) reported that Germany wants to speed up the development of the Green Hydrogen value chain between Australia and Germany. As has been reported in previous editions of Low Carbon Pulse and this Edition 40 (Long Form Version), Germany will not have domestic supply capacity to satisfy its domestic demand for Green Hydrogen. 

    Microsoft Blue Print for Australia:

    During May 2022, Microsoft published Accelerating the Journey to Net Zero – A Blue Print for Australia. The publication provides a helpful overview of the progress that needs to be made in Australia.

    Blue and Green Carbon Initiatives and Biodiversity

    May 22, 2022, was Biodiversity Day. Biodiversity Day is intended to increase awareness of the benefits of biodiversity and the importance of preserving biodiversity. In the broadest sense, biodiversity describes the variety of the fauna and flora globally, and in any particular area. At the highest level, biodiversity is important. The preservation of biodiversity is therefore a key policy setting. In this context, human activities and the clearing of land to undertake agricultural, forestry or other land use (AFOLU) is a key focus of policy settings. Desertification and deforestation are key concerns (both as a result of AFOLU), as is the broader impact of climate change on habitats, critically, the impact on change in temperature on land and in the ocean. 

    There is a balance in habitats, with eco-systems that have developed overtime, and that continue to develop. The balance of habitats and their eco-systems are impacted by AFOLU and climate change. There are many examples, but a consistent example (that many will recognise) is the need to preserve the habitats of bees and other pollinators, and to avoid loss of bees and other pollinators. As a policy setting, the rewilding of habitats is one element of preservation, and, in some cases, restoration of eco-systems. As a broad statement, preserving wilderness areas, and rewilding of areas, and reducing old growth forestry, and afforestation and reforestation, are key to the preservation and restoration of biodiversity. These are policy settings over which we have control in the near, medium and long term. In addition, overtime, policy settings may extend to addressing optimal use of land, optimal in the sense of preserving or restoring biodiversity while at the same time addressing climate change. As always, what is needed is known. As always, the challenge is acting upon it.

    Climate change will impact the effectiveness of these policy settings (in particular coastal habitats, and areas of increased drought and desertification, driven by rising sea-levels and changes in weather patterns, as a result of climate change), but they are policy settings that are necessary and need to be progressed in the near term. In addition, acting to preserve and to restore biodiversity is likely to yield benefits, economic and social.  

    Existing impact: It is widely understand that 75% of the Earth's land and 66% of its oceans have been altered by human activity, with associated impact on eco-systems. It is against this background that there is considerable anticipation of Part 2 of the 15th meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP-15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to be held in Kunming, PRC, "tentatively scheduled" for between August 29 and September 9, 2022 (Part 1 of COP-15 took place virtually form October 11 to 15, 2021). 

    COP-15 will review the achievement and delivery on the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 – 2020. Also it is anticipated that conclusions will be reached in respect of the post-2020 global diversity framework.

    Bioenergy and heat-recovery:

    Anaergia commissions first of seven:

    On May 3, 2022, Anaergia announced that it had commissioned its Easy Energia Ambiente facility in Pontinia, Italy. The Easy Energia Ambiente facility will process organic waste to derive biogas, which will then be upgraded (by the removal of CO2 and CO, and trace compounds) to produce biomethane or renewable natural gas (RNG). 

    Up to USD 2 billion committed to RNG:

    On May 12, 2022, S&P Global reported that:

    • Waste Management (US' largest waste management corporation) is to invest USD 825 million to develop and to deploy RNG plants at 17 landfills across the US; and 
    • Republic Services (US solid waste disposal company), with biofuels corporation, Archaea Energy, announced a USD 1.1 billion joint venture to develop and to deploy 39 RNG plants across the US.

    Biomethane Action Plan for the EU:

    On May 18, 2022, as part of the REPowerEU Plan, the EU proposed a Biomethane Action Plan, with the objective of producing 35 billion cubic metres (BCM) of biomethane by 2030

    BESS and HESS (and energy storage):

    Maoneng continues roll-out of BESS:

    On May 2, 2022, it was reported widely that Maoneng proposes to develop the Merriwa Energy Hub in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia (located 180 kms north-west of Newcastle on the coast of New South Wales). 

    Powin Energy powers on and up:

    On May 4, 2022, it was reported widely that Powin Energy is to supply 120 MW / 524 MWh of BESS capacity to Idaho Power.

    Compressed Air Storage preferred for Broken Hill:

    On May 27, 2022, it was reported widely that a compressed air storage solution had been chosen to provide back-up electrical energy supply at Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia. Hydrostor with a proprietary technology – advanced compressed air energy storage (A-CAES). The A-CAES is a long duration energy storage (LDES) system capable of dispatching stored energy to the grid, and to help address the capacity constraints across the grid regionally. 

    HESS happening:

    On May 30, 2022, it was reported widely that UK Energy Storage Ltd (UKEn) intends to develop an Energy-Hub located across two sites in Portland, Dorset, United Kingdom. As reported, beneath land owned by Portland Port Limited there are salt caverns that are ideal for the storage of hydrogen, some reporting suggesting up to 1.2 billion m3 of available capacity for hydrogen storage. 

    Carbon Accounting, Carbon Capture and Carbon Capture and Use and CDR:

    NSTA awards carbon storage licences to BP and Equinor:

    On May 12, 2022, the North Sea Transition Authority (NSTA) announced in a press release that it had awarded carbon storage (CS) licences to bp Exploration and Equinor.

    The award of the licences to bp and Equinor brings to six the CS licences that the NSTA is now stewarding.

    Cross-border carbon storage:

    On May 13, 2022, announced that it (Cory Group) had signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Northern Lights (part of the Norwegian Longship CCS project) to work together to realise a major carbon capture and storage projects between Norway and the UK

    Repurposing of natural gas pipeline:

    On May 18, 2022, reported that Tallgrass is to expand the reach of its Eastern Wyoming Sequestration Hub to include an ADM (Archer-Daniels Midland Company) corn processing complex in Columbus, Nebraska (ADM facility) by the repurposing of its Trailblazer natural gas pipeline to haul CO2 captured at the ADM facility.

    CVX launches CCS project:

    On May 18, 2022, Chevron U.S.A. Inc., announced the development of a CCS project at its Kern River Eastridge co-generation plant, Kern County, San Joaquin Valley, California. 

    Bayou Bend in the pink:

    On May 24, 2022, talos energy announced that it had executed definitive documentation with Carbonvert, Inc. and Chevron U.S.A Inc., to develop, in joint venture, the Bayou Bend CCS off-shore bub. 

    Slite CCS Project proceeds:

    On May 30, 2022, HeidelbergCement announced further progress of its Slite CCS project. The announcement from HeidelbergCement starts with – "We're not just making concrete promises – we are also taking action". The Slite CCS project has passed pre-feasibility study, and the carbon capture facilities will be scaled up so as to capture 1.8 million metric tonnes of CO2 annually by 2030.

    Carbon Credits and Hydrogen Markets and Trading:

    LEAF Coalition:

    On May 13, 2022, the LEAF Coalition Window for Proposals from Forest jurisdictions opened. The mobilisation of USD 1 billion during 2021 was significant. As significant is the reputation that the LEAF Coalition has for "rigorous verification mechanisms" to verify that carbon is in fact sequestrated, and remains sequestrated. 

    Japan Carbon Credit trading platform:

    On May 13, 2022, reported that the Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan Exchange Group (owner and operator of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the Osaka Exchange, and the Tokyo Commodity Exchange) are to establish the first market for carbon credit trading in Japan. 

    World Bank perspective:

    During May 24, 2022, the World Bank published State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2022. The publication is excellent, and is well-worth a read.

    E-fuels & feedstocks / Future Fuels & Feedstocks / Now Fuels & Feedstocks:

    Sunshine state to get Super Hybrid Hydro:

    On May 4, 2022, the plans of Sunshine Hydro were reported widely. As reported, Sunshine Hydro intends to develop the "world's first SuperHydrid project" using renewable energy generation capacity, energy storage capacity and Green Hydrogen production capacity to supply renewable electrical energy 24/7, 365, and Green Hydrogen for use within Queensland. It is understood that Sunshine Hydro intends to develop three SuperHybrid projects within the Central Queensland Renewable Energy Zone.

    Jolly Green Giant:

    On May 4, 2022, pv-magazine-australia reported (under Plans for giant green hydrogen project in WA revealed) on the scale of the planned Murchison Hydrogen Renewables project: while the Murchison Hydrogen Renewables project is not new, formal details as to its scale and scope are – the Green Hydrogen and Green Ammonia production facilities are to be powered by 3.7 GW of installed photovoltaic solar and wind capacity, a 250 MW to 350 MW / 500 MWh / 700 MWh BESS, 3 GW of electrolyser capacity, a desalination plant (producing six-gigalitres of demineralised water a year) to allow the production of up to 2,118,880 metric tonnes of Green Hydrogen a year and up to 200 hydrogen storage vessels (each with a 680 metric tonne capacity) which together will allow the production of up to 2 million metric tonnes of Green Ammonia a year. 

    ScottishPower and Storegga to transform highland hydrogen:

    On May 5, 2022, Storegga announced that ScottishPower (Scotland-based energy company and subsidiary of Spanish utility firm Iberdrola) and Storegga (global leading carbon capture solutions corporation) had agreed to develop, to build and to operate a series of green hydrogen production facilities across Scotland, with the first to be located in the Cromarty Firth region, north of Inverness, producing 20 metric tonnes of Green Hydrogen a day by 2024, with the Green Hydrogen to satisfy demand from corporations, including whisky distilleries.

    Storegga's continued progress:

    On May 16, 2022, it was reported widely that Storegga had received backing from GIC, Macquarie Group, M&G Investments, Mitsui and Snam to continue to develop carbon capture and hydrogen projects in Norway, the UK and the US

    Winterhall Dea announces BlueHyNow:

    On May 5, 2022, Wintershall Dea announced plans to develop a clean / low-carbon hydrogen production facility facilities (the BlueHyNow Project), at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. As announced, the CO2 arising from the BlueHyNow Project is to be transported for injection into sub-sea-bed storage in Denmark and Norway. For these purposes, it is assumed that the a CO2 liquefaction facility will need to be developed. 

    HyNetherlands Project recast:

    On May 10, 2022, it was reported widely the Engie intends to recast its HyNetherlands Project to produce Green Methanol, using Green Hydrogen (produced from Engie's planned 100 MW electrolyser, using renewable electrical energy sourced from 200 MW of off-shore wind field capacity) as a feedstock to be synthesised with CO2 to produce low-carbon methanol in Eemshaven, the Netherlands. 

    The Green Hydrogen produced by Engie's HyNetherlands Project will be synthesised with biogenic CO2 captured from the EEW Energy waste-to-energy facility located at Farmsum, at the OCI Delfzijl Chemical Park. The HyNetherlands Project will be connected with the OCI Delfzijl Chemical Park via the hydrogen network developed by Gasunie

    Iberdrola Green Hydrogen production facility opens:

    On May 13, 2022, it was reported widely that the King of Spain opened the €150 million Green Hydrogen production facility at Puertollano, Spain, owned by Iberdrola.

    Plug Power first 1 GW order:

    On May 17, 2022, reported that H2 Energy Europe (Swiss-headquartered joint venture between Singapore-based commodity trading firm Trafigura Pte Ltd. and H2 Energy Holding AG) had ordered a 1 GW electrolyser system from Plug Power. 

    Uniper LoI with HIF:

    On May 19, 2022, uniper announced that it has signed a Letter of Intent (LoI) with HIF Chile and HIF Global to provide a framework to negotiate binding off-take agreements for E-Fuels to be produced from the production facilities at Magallanes, Chile. It is understood that the negotiations will extend to the sale and purchase of up to 2 million metric tonnes of E-Methanol a year. 

    JERA to accelerate NH3 and coal co-firing:

    On May 31, 2022, reported that JERA and IHI Corporation intend to accelerate the co-firing of ammonia and coal at Unit 4 of the Hekinan Power Station, co-firing of 20% ammonia to 80% coal from the start of April 1 2023, and completing the pilot project by the end of March 2024.

    Cities, Clusters, and Hubs and Corridors and Valleys, and Giga-Factories:

    Sila next-gen anode giga-factory:

    On May 3, 2022, Sila announced (at that it had acquired 600,000 ft2 at Moses Lake, in Washington State, within which to house its lithium-ion anode manufacturing capacity for the use in electric battery electric vehicles. The manufacturing capacity of the facility will be up to 10 GWh of cells when used as a full-graphite replacement, and up to 50 GWh when used as a partial replacement. 

    John Cockerill roosts globally:

    On May 4, 2022, reported that by 2025 John Cockerill Group (JCG) intends to increase its annual production of pressurised alkaline electrolysers to 8 GW with new giga-factories to be developed in Europe (2 GW), India (2 GW), the Middle East (1 GW), and the PRC (2 GW), with the location of the eighth GW yet to be confirmed.

    Sodium-ion manufacturing capacity development:

    On May 10, 2022, energy-storage reported on the plans of Altris and Natron Energy to develop new manufacturing facilities. 

    • Altris (sodium-based cathode technology corporation, backed by Northvolt) has announced an agreement with Sandvik Materials Technology to co-locate its first manufacturing facility at a Sandvick factory in Sandviken, Sweden, called the Ferrum facility. The Ferrum facility will produce 2,000 metric tonnes of cathode material (Ferric) a year, enabling 1 GWh of sodium-ion battery production.
    • Natron Energy (sodium-ion battery manufacturer) has announced the development of a sodium-ion battery manufacturing plant in Meadowbank, Michigan. As reported, Natron Energy batteries are used primarily for critical power applications (including data centres and telecommunications networks), with the intention to achieve broader application of them, including for EVs and grid-scale BESS.

    Hanwha Q Cells plans US Giga-factory:

    On May 12, 2022, reported that Hanwha Q Cells has announced plans to develop a 1.4 GW photovoltaic cell panel factory in the US. Also it was reported that Hanwha Q Cells intends to expand its photovoltaic cell capacity in the ROK to 5.4 GW

    Corfo of Chile contracts for development of industry scale electrolyser production in Chile:

    On May 26, 2022, reported that the Production Development Corporation (Corfo) of Chile had selected three projects to manufacture electrolysis capacity of 388 MW. Corfo signed three agreements, with GNL Quintero, CAP SA, and Air Liquide.

    Green Metals / Minerals, Mining and Difficult to Decarbonise Industries:

    Green Steel in Canada:

    On May 2, 2022, it was reported widely that ArcelorMittal SA had tested successfully the use of Green Hydrogen to reduce iron ore at its facilities in Contrecoeur, Quebec, Canada: as reported, Green Hydrogen was used to displace around 7% of the mass of natural gas ordinarily used. 

    Anglo American – nuGen:

    On May 6, 2022, Anglo American introduced its nuGenSolution – Anglo American's Zero Emission Haulage Solution or ZEHS for short ("A solution so ambitious, it didn’t exist. So we made it from scratch".) The nuGen Solution is part of the Anglo American Our FutureSmart Mining programme. 

    Wind round-up, on-shore and off-shore:

    Colombia Off-shore Wind Roadmap:

    On May 3, 2022, the President of Colombia, Ivan Duque, and the Minister of Mining and Energy, Diego Mesa, presented the Colombian Offshore Wind Energy Roadmap (OWER). The OWER outlines the potential for off-shore wind field capacity - 50 GW of installed capacity over 12,000 km2, with 27 GW more suited to fixed-bottom installation, and 21 GW more suited to floating.

    US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) busy:

    All cool:

    On May 6, 2022, it was reported widely that the BOEM had completed its review of potential impacts from the development of OWFs in the Humboldt Wind Energy Area (WEA), off-shore the US State of California, the BOEM reporting a finding of no significant impact (FONSI). As reported, the WEA has the potential for the installation of up to 1.6 GW of OWF capacity;

    All go, go, go:

    On May 11, 2022, the BOEM held a lease auction offering two lease areas located in US Federal Waters off-shore of North Carolina and South Carolina. The two lease areas (in the Wilmington East Area (WEA)) are located in the Carolina Long Bay (covering 110,000 acres) with potential to install up to 1.3 GW of off-shore wind fields capacity across them. The lease areas are OCS-A 545 and OCS-A 0546.

    On May 11, 2022, it was announced that lease area:

    • OCS-A 0545 had been awarded to TotalEnergies Renewables USA, with a bid of USD 160 million; and
    • OCS-A 0546 had been awarded to Duke Energy Renewables Wind with a bid of USD 150 million.

    Norway to achieve 30 by 40:

    On May 11, 2022, the Government of Norway outlined its plans to promote the development of off-shore wind field capacity so as to develop 30 GW of capacity by 2040 (30 by 40). 

    California 3 by 2030, 15 by 2045 and 20 GW by 50:

    On May 11, 2022, the California Energy Commission (CEC) outlined plans to allow the development of floating off-shore wind field capacity 3 GW by 2030, 15 GW by 2045, and 20 by 2050

    Petrobras and Equinor eye 4 GW development:

    On May 18, 2022, reported that Petrobras and Equinor were considering the feasibility of the development of a 4 GW off-shore wind field. Petrobras and Equinor have been working together on the Aracatu OWF project since signing a memorandum of understanding in 2018. 

    Hollandse Kust West Site bids close:

    As the close date of May 12, 2022 for bids approached, there was considerable coverage of the fact that the criteria for the assessment of bids for Hollandse Kust (west) VI and Hollande Kust (west) VII were different, in particular for:

    • Hollandse Kust (west) VI the criteria are reported as requiring bidders to consider and to address the impact of ecosystems in the North Sea (with a reported 50% weighting in respect of these criteria); and 
    • Hollandse Kust (west) VII the criteria are reported as requiring bidders to consider and to address the integration on the renewable electrical energy generated (and related infrastructure) into the energy system in the Netherlands (again with a reported 50% weighting in respect of these criteria).

    At the risk of missing those that bid in the process (and apologies in advance if anyone is missed), from news reports the following bidders have been reported: BASF and Vattenfall are reported to have bid jointly in respect of Hollandse Kust (west) VI, and Vattenfall is reported to have bid on Hollande Kust (west) VII; bp is reported to have bid for both Hollandse Kust (west) VI and Hollande Kust (west) VII; Brookfield and SSE Renewables are reported to have bid for Hollandse Kust (west) VII; Eneco and Shell are reported to have bid for both Hollandse Kust (west) VI and Hollande Kust (west) VII; Ocean Winds (the EPD Renewables and Engie 50:50 joint venture) is reported to have bid for Hollandse Kust (west) VI; Ørsted and TotalEnergies are reported to have bid jointly for both Hollandse Kust (west) VI and Hollande Kust (west) VII; and RWE is reported to have submitted bids for both Hollandse Kust (west) VI and Hollande Kust (west) VII.

    Noatun Nord and Noatun Syd:

    On May 20, 2022, it was reported by that OX2 and Ålandsbanken Fondbolag Ab had agreed to progress to develop multi-giga-watt off-shore wind field projects, Noatun Nord and Syd, off of the Åland Islands in the Baltic Sea. Both OWF projects are at early development phase.

    BlueFloat Energy and Falck Renewables floating off-shore Sardinia:

    On May 20, 2022, reported that BlueFloat and Falck Renewables planned to develop 975 MW of off-shore wind capacity, off the northeast coast of Sardinia, Italy, the Tibula Energia

    Solar and Sustainability (including NZE Waste):

    Solar Juice and Sungrow position for C&I and residential renewable electrical energy equipment market:

    On May 7, 2022, as reported in, Solar Juice and Sungrow signed a long-term distribution contract in respect of up to 2 GW of capacity. The long-term distribution contract reflects the confidence in the continued growth of the C&I and residential market for photovoltaic solar capacity. 

    Westinghouse to house pumped-storage:

    On May 9, 2022, energy-storage reported that on May 5, 2022, Westinghouse Electric Company had signed a memorandum of understanding with Bulgarian Energy Holding to develop two pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) units. 

    BP stake in Asian Renewable Energy Hub (AREH):

    On May 9, 2022, it was reported widely that BP (leading international energy corporation) intended to invest in AREH (see Editions 2, 18, 20 and 37 of Low Carbon Pulse). 

    Portugal First Floater:

    On May 10, 2022, Reuters reported that on May 9, 2022, two tugboats moved an array of 12,000 (5 MW) photovoltaic solar panels to their mooring on the Alqueva reservoir, ahead of the start-up of what will be Europe's largest floating photovoltaic (FPV) solar park in July 2022. The floating photovoltaic solar park has been developed by EDP.

    DNV on FPV:

    On May 13, 2021, reported that DNV (Norwegian classification society) is developing recommended practices (RPs) for the design, development and operation of FPV arrays. 

    Richer at PORA:

    On May 13, 2022, the Port of Rotterdam Authority (PORA) reported the development of the first e-waste and battery waste recycling plant in the Netherlands. As noted above, batteries use the metals and minerals cobalt, lithium and nickel, each of which is increasingly valuable. 

    Northvolt recycling voltage:

    On May 15, 2022, Northvolt (Swedish battery developer for electric vehicles) announced and Norsk Hydro announced that the Hydrovolt AS (a joint venture between Northvolt and Norsk Hydro) recycling plant, located in Fredrikstad, Norway, had commenced operation. 

    The fully automated Hydrovolt recycling plant has capacity sufficient to recycle the entire end-of-life battery pack market in Norway, i.e., 12,000 metric tonnes of battery packs from BEVs annually (around 25,000 battery packs) recovering up to 95% of the materials comprising each battery pack.

    ACE Green Recycling plant:

    On May 16, 2022, reported that ACE Green Recycling plans to develop a lithium-ion and lead-acid battery recycling plant in Texas. As reported, the recycling plant will be able to recycle up to 100,000 metric tonnes of lead-acid batteries, and up 20,000 metric tonnes of lithium-ion batteries, annually. 

    Li-cycle Corporation (Li-cycle) third spoke turning:

    On May 17, 2022, it was reported widely that Li-cycle had commenced commercial operation at its recovery and recycling plant in Gilbert, Arizona (Arizona Spoke Facility). The Arizona Spoke Facility recovers metals and mineral from full battery packs from BEVs, having capacity to recover up to 30,000 metric tonnes annually.

    Xlinks progresses:

    On May 20, 2022, it was reported widely that Xlinks plans to proceed to develop the Morocco to UK sub-sea HVDC renewable electrical energy project. Editions 16 and 28 of Low Carbon Pulse reported on Xlinks. 

    Land Mobility / Transport:

    Buses and coaches: 

    Bonn / Köln fuel cell fleet:

    On May 3, 2022, Dutch Hydrogen Magazine reported that the region of Bonn / Koln in Germany is to procure a fleet of 108 fuel-cell technology buses. By the reckoning of the author of Low Carbon Pulse, this is the largest single procurement to date of fuel-cell technology buses. 

    Volgren and Wrightbus look to Australian market:

    On May 11, 2022, Wrightbus announced that it was working with Volgren to manufacture two zero-emission hydrogen single deck fuel-cell technology buses for the Australian market. The two fuel-cell technology buses will be powered and propelled by the Wrightbus' NexGen fuel-cell powertrains

    Maine Street:

    On May 17, 2022, reported that the first of four Proterrra ZX5 35 foot battery electric buses had entered service in Portland, Maine. Greater Portland Metro and Biddeford Saco Old Orchard Beach Transit purchased the electric busses using funding support from both Federal and State Governments.

    NSW first hydrogen bus:

    On May 25, 2022, Transport NSW announced that the State of New South Wales would commence trials of its first fuel-cell technology electric bus on the Central Coast of New South Wales later in 2022.

    Wrightbus right for Germany:

    On May 27, 2022, reported that Wrightbus is to supply 60 zero-emission hydrogen-powered-and-propelled buses to Germany. German bus operator, Regionalverkehr Köln GmbH (RVK) is the purchaser. 

    Cars (including taxis and air-taxis):

    Taking the Scenic route - Renault to manufacture BEV and fuel cell family cars:

    On May 19, 2022, it was reported widely that Renault is to manufacture a battery electric vehicle (BEV) family car, and a hydrogen powered and propelled family car (using fuel-cell technology) for the European car market.

    Great Wall Motor to manufacture fuel cell cars:

    On May 27, 2022 (or thereabouts), it was reported widely that Great Wall Motors or GWM (PRC giant vehicle manufacturer) is to manufacture a number of hydrogen powered and propelled family vehicles. GWM manufactures BEV cars already (the ORA and WEY). 

    Western Australian police trialling fuel police cars:

    On May 31, 2022, it was reported widely that the Western Australian (WA) Police Force was to commence trials of a fuel-cell technology vehicle. For these purposes, the WA Police Force is using a Toyota Mirai fuel-cell technology vehicle.

    Battery, Fuel Cell and ICE Technology:

    Cummins Inc ICE:

    On May 9, 2022, Cummins Inc announced the debut of its 15-litre hydrogen engine at ACT Expo in Long Beach, California.

    Industrial Vehicles and Trucks: 

    Hyundai to expand in the US:

    On May 9, 2022, Hyundai Motor Company announced plans to increase its participation in the US commercial vehicle market with the introduction of its XCIENT Fuel Cell trucks into the US market. 

    Emergency services roll-out:

    On May 11, 2022, hydrogen-central reported hydrogen fuel-cell technology pioneer, ULEMCo, is working with Oxfordshire County Council and its Fire and Rescue Service to assess and to determine the basis upon which fuel-cell technology may be used to power and to propel fire engines. 

    Scania expands to match growing interest in biogas trucks:

    On May 12, 2022, Scania announced that it is responding to increased customer interest in biogas (more correctly, biomethane or renewable natural gas) with new specifications and tanks, with ranges of 1,400 km now possible.

    Volvo Trucks using Fossil-free Steel:

    On May 24, 2022, it reported widely that Volvo AB is now manufacturing trucks comprising Fossil-free Steel

    This marks continued progress in the decarbonisation of steel used in vehicle manufacture, and continued progress of SSAB producing Fossil Free Fuel from the HYBRIT mill, using HYBRIT technology. Edition 25 of Low Carbon Pulse reported that (under HYBRIT's Clean Steel in the road) SSAB delivered the "first fossil-free steel in the world" to Volvo Group from the HYBRIT mill, using HYBRIT technology. 

    Recharging and refuelling infrastructure:

    Green for Greece:

    On May 18, 2022, it was reported widely that the first hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) had commenced operation in Greece. The HRS is located in Athens, Greece, and will be used to refuel light duty vehicles (bikes and scooters) in the first instance. 

    HRS opens in Antwerp, Belgium:

    On May 30, 2022, it was reported that Colruyt Group (Belgian family owned retail group) and DATS 24 (energy and fuel supplier) has opened a new HRS on the A12 in Wilrijk, Antwerp, Belgium. As reported, this is the first of five new HRS in Belgium. 


    ATCO Group to supply to Canadian Pacific:

    On May 4, 2022, ATCO Group announced that it had contracted Canadian Pacific to develop and to deploy two hydrogen production facilities and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure – the facilities and infrastructure are to be developed at the railyards of Canadian Pacific in Calgary and Edmonton, in the province of Alberta, Canada.

    Deutsche Bahn and Siemens Mobility present new hydrogen train and hydrogen storage tank trailer:

    On May 5, 2022, it was reported widely that Deutsche Bahn and Siemens Mobility had presented the newly developed Mireo Plus H and a newly designed mobile hydrogen storage tanker. The Mireo Plus H is intended to replace diesel powered and propelled trains.

    Ports Progress and Shipping Forecast:

    Ferries and other craft:

    ADB (Asian Development Bank) funds E-Smart Ferries Project:

    On April 27, 2022, ADB announced that it had agreed to provide funding support (from its Clean Technology Fund) to Energy Absolute Public Company Ltd to assist in the funding required to develop and to deploy an electric ferry fleet for mass rapid transport in Bangkok, Thailand. 

    Gladstone – Curtis Island Shuttle:

    On May 9, 2022, reported that SeaLink Marine & Tourism had received a funding support commitment from the Government of Queensland, Australia (under its Hydrogen Industry Development Fund) to develop a ferry powered and propelled by fuel cell technology

    Workboats afloat:

    On May 11, 2022, CMB.TECH and Windcat Workboats announced that they have developed as the world's first hydrogen-powered (and propelled) crew transfer vessel (CTV) – the Hydrocat 48. The Hydrocat 48 uses dual-fuel MAN Engines, retrofitted by CMB.TECH with a hydrogen injection system, and is to undertake bunkering and sea-trials.

    Chase Zero on the water:

    On May 13, 2022, hydrogenenergy reported that chase boat, Chase Zero, had been tested in Hauraki Gulf, Auckland, New Zealand. The Chase Zero is a hydrogen powered and propelled chase boat, and during testing it reached a little over 50 knots (58 mph or 93 km/h), and powered and propelled by fuel cell technology developed by Toyota

    Green Ports (including infrastructure):

    Gasunie and Vopak:

    On May 2, 2022, Vopak announced that Gasunie and Vopak had agreed (under a cooperation agreement) to work together jointly to develop open access hydrogen import terminal infrastructure at Dutch and German ports to allow the import of hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels into northwest Europe

    Port of Rotterdam Authority (PORA) continues to lead the way:

    On May 10, 2020, a number of news items covered the size and shape of what PORA and 70 corporations will be able to achieve, represented most consistently by a representation of a hydrogen molecule marked with "4.6 mega tonnes hydrogen in 2030" and "Rotterdam Europe's Hydrogen Hub".

    Green Shipping:

    Design for 37,500 m3 liquified hydrogen carrier:

    On May 3, 2022, it was reported widely that C-Job Naval Architects has provided high-level details of its 141 metre, 37,500 m3, liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier. Critically, the design of the LH2 carrier allows transportation of LH2 without the need for ballast, with the containment system at deck-level. Also the containment system will allow a lower level of boil-off than currently. 

    First truck to ship hydrogen bunkering successful:

    On May 5, 2022, Ekinetix announced that the Hydrocat (a hydrogen-powered vessel used as a support vessel for off-shore wind field developments) had been bunkered with hydrogen using its mobile refueler and bunkering process.

    ONE orders 10 13,700 TEU container vessel:

    On May 31, 2022, offshore-energy reported that Singapore-based Ocean Network Express had order the build of 10 eco-efficient very large container vessels (VLCS). As reported, five VLCS will be built by Hyundai Heavy Industries and five by Nihon Shipyard.

    Airports and Aviation:

    SAF continues to find, and to expand, market:

    • On May 19, 2022, it was reported widely that Neste (leading renewable chemical and fuel supplier) and United Airlines had signed a three year sale and purchase agreement under which Neste is to sell and United Airlines is to purchase up to 160,000 metric tonnes (52.5 million gallons) of Neste's MY Sustainable Aviation Fuel, with the SAF to be used to power and to propel United's flights from Schiphol Airport, Amsterdam.
    • On May 27, 2022, Neste announced that Neste and ITOCHU were celebrating the first delivery, in Japan, of Neste's MY Sustainable Aviation Fuel to Etihad Airways, with SAF being delivered to Etihad Airways at Narita International Airport, Toyko. Japan is committed to the use of SAF to satisfy 10% of total use of aviation fuel by 2030.

    The author of (and researcher for) each edition of Low Carbon Pulse is Michael Harrison.

    The information provided is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all developments in the law and practice, or to cover all aspects of those referred to.
    Readers should take legal advice before applying it to specific issues or transactions.


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